Open access resources
During the COVID-19 pandemic, more publishers and institutions made research material available online. We've compiled a growing list of resources for you to use at home. However, also included under languages is a link to Courses (starting January 2023) organised by Classical Association of Scotland for which fees are payable.
Open-access Classics resources
From individuals to publishers, a wealth of Classics content, from ancient language learning resources to journal access, museum databases to recordings of Greek drama, is becoming available to everyone, in addition to the digital resources which we already offer our readers.
Keep up with us on Facebook and Twitter as well, where you can alert us to new resources as well as let us know how you get on using the ones we've covered below.
We are in the process of digitising items held by the library that are out of copyright. Where a digitised version is available you will see a link from the catalogue records, or browse the available items here: https://sas-space.sas.ac.uk/view/collections/CCL.html.
The Warburg Institute Online Resources and Databases is extensive and well worth checking out too, as is the Stephanus TLG E-Resources for Classicists and the Ancient World Online index.
Highly recommended also is this Open University blog outlining the OU's free Classical Studies material, and those available through the Classical Association (scroll down to the Free online resources and teaching support section).
If you want to stay connected to Classics news, we'd also recommend subscribing (free) to the University of Liverpool's Classicists list. To do this: send an e-mail to email@example.com (yes, that’s two listservs!) from the address to subscribe to, with the body text subscribe Classicists No subject line needed. It is possible to fine-tune settings - format of subject line, various daily digest options, suspension of mail delivery via the web interface at http://listserv.liv.ac.uk/archives/classicists.html. Subscribers might be need to create a password the first time using the listserv. The link is also automatically appended to all messages received from the list, so there’s no need to make a special note of it.
A website run by the University of Nottingham (U.K.) aggregates databases from around the world, locating open access research across disciplines.
A support group which concentrates on people trying to negotiate academia, either as staff or as students, the Network for Working-Class Classicists (NWCC) campaigns for structural change. The group is setting up a mentoring scheme, and draws attention to issues which disproportionately affect students and lecturers from underprivileged backgrounds. It is organised from Edinburgh University Classics Department, and was set up by Lilah Grace and Mirko Canevaro.
Explore the ever-growing range of material in the sub-headings below.
A New Allen and Greenough
Dickinson-college led new digital version of Allen and Greenough’s New Latin Grammar for Schools and Colleges.
AGAPE is a new open-access database which maps the reception of the Greek Church Fathers in print throughout early modern Europe. AGAPE represents the main outcome of the four-year FNS Ambizione project The Greek Imprint on Europe: Patristics and Publishing in the Early Swiss Reformation, based at the Institut d’histoire de la Réformation, University of Geneva. In contrast to the Renaissance interest in the pagan Antiquity and classical literature, the highly significant rediscovery of the Greek Fathers remains untold and largely understudied. AGAPE records any edition of Greek patristic works printed in Europe from 1465 to 1600 in the original language, as well as in Latin and vernacular translations. AGAPE refines the available data and substantially improves their level of detail: AGAPE currently provides access to all editions printed in the fifteenth century (c. 310). Data related to the sixteenth century will be disclosed decade by decade (1501-1510, 1511-1520, 1521-1530 etc.) to ensure reliability.
Ancient Greek with A.C. Duncan
Online Greek lessons for those using the Athenaze series from A.C. 'Al' Duncan, Assistant Professor of Classics at UNC Chapel Hill.
Classical Association of Scotland
Language and other related courses starting January 2023. Fees payable.
Latin for Absolute Beginners (10wks)
Ancient Greek for Absolute Beginners (10wks)
Middle Egyptian for Absolute Beginners (10wks)
Female Revenge in Greek Literature & Culture (8wks)
The Roman Army & the Shaping of Rome (8wks)
Online resources for teaching and learning paleography in Ancient Greek, using texts from Antiquity to the Renaissance.
Free downloads of Books 1, 2, and 3 of the Imperium Latin course.
Free educational materials, including two introductory Audio visual Latin courses.
Less Commonly Taught Languages (LCTL)
A University of Minnesota-headed index of resources, teaching materials, and online material for learning less commonly taught languages, including several ancient ones.
Nifty Greek resources
Useful sheets / handouts for Greek language learning from the University of Chicago
Open University resources for learning / teaching ancient Greek
This link from the OU provides a range of free online resources designed to support students' first steps with the language: These include help with the letters and sounds of Ancient Greek, as well as a more in-depth, introductory online course (roughly 24 hours' study), Getting Started on Ancient Greek. For teachers and students working with the Reading Greek textbooks (JACT/CUP), there are further free resources available. These include the Reading Greek: A Supplementary Guide for Teachers and Learners, a Vocabulary Tester and online quizzes, all relating to Sections 1-9 of the Reading Greek books. Newly available is the Language Reference Book for Reading Greek Sections 1-9 (developed with support from the Classical Association). This lists all the vocabulary and sets out in clear and legible form the tables of verbs, nouns and adjectives met in Reading Greek Sections 1-9. It is also provides summaries of key grammatical concepts and aims to answer some of the specific, more complex, questions occasionally raised by students.
Satura Lanx Latin podcast
If you've decided to use your time in self-isolation to learn Latin, check out the Satura Lanx Latin podcast, which guides you through some of the building block texts of Roman literature. Check out this link for a taster, by way of Catullus III.
As well as ancient language group and private lessons, Schola Humanistica also hosts monthly 'webinars' conducted in Latin.
Classical Texts (including Drama performances)
Aeschylus' Agamemnon. A bibliography of the Agamemnon from 1518 to present by Antonella Candio and Federico Boschetti
Ancient Fable Society
This Society was founded in 2020 by Ursula Gärtner during the international conference on Ancient Fables held in Graz. Their website provides an overview of the latest developments in research on Greek and Latin fables and includes information on poetology, narratology, new critical editions and commentaries and a bibliography. The Society acts as a forum for the exchange of information / collaborations between researchers working on Greek and Latin Fables from Hesiod to Neo-Latin fables.
Archive of Performances of Greek and Roman Drama: A research project based in the Classics Faculty at the University of Oxford. It investigates the performance of ancient texts from Greek tragedy to Roman epic, in any medium and any period, from stage to screen, from antiquity to the present day. Includes a productions database.
By Jove Theatre Company
Dating back to 2011, By Jove have created productions using myths, legends, and tales from the cultural canon, tackling complex issues but with a distinct sense of playfulness and irreverence. Details on their past work can be seen on this page and the following link looks at the character of Agave from the ancient to the modern stage.
The Chicago Homer is a multilingual database that uses the search and display capabilities of electronic texts to make the distinctive features of Early Greek epic accessible to readers with and without Greek. Except for fragments, it contains all the texts of these poems in the original Greek, along with English and Greek translations.
Corpus medicorum Graecorum/ Latinorum
The CMG/CML features online editions and digitizations of ancient medical manuscripts in Greek, Latin and Arabic, as well as concordances.
Dickinson College Commentaries
Free online commentaries and vocabulary lists to accompany selections from Greek and Latin texts. See also this selection of nine Latin texts, prose and poetry, produced by a partnership between Dickinson College and Oxford University Press.
Digital Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum (DFHG)
A digital edition of the five volumes of the Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum (FHG) produced by Monica Berti at the Alexander von Humboldt Chair of Digital Humanities at the University of Leipzig.
A digital edition of the Deipnosophists of Athenaeus of Naukratis. The work is focused on annotating quotations and text reuses in the Deipnosophists.
Digital library of late antique Latin texts
DigilibLT publishes secular prose texts written in Latin in late antiquity. Over 300 texts are currently available.
Digital Latin Library
Critical editions of Latin texts, of all types, from all eras. The DLL Project aims to facilitate an ongoing scholarly conversation about these texts through open collaboration and annotation.
Geoffrey Steadman Textbook Series
Free download files of Classical Texts and Vocabulary notes produced in the Geoffrey Steadman series. Including Plato, Herodotus, Homer, Caesar, Cicero, Ovid and more.
Between the 8th and 10th centuries CE, hundreds of Greek philosophical, medical and scientific works were translated into Arabic. These helped shape the development of philosophy and science in the Islamic world. Through later Latin translations, they also exerted some influence in the Latin West. Most importantly, Arabic translations were crucial for preserving, transmitting and extending ancient Greek thought: many Greek texts were lost in the intervening centuries and are now only extant in Arabic translation. The Arabic translators also had access to manuscripts that were often several centuries older and potentially closer to the Greek originals than those available to editors of ancient Greek texts today.
The Digital Corpus has a wide range of Greek texts and their Arabic counterparts and includes a number of Arabic commentaries and important secondary sources. The texts in the corpus can be consulted individually or side by side with their translation.
The most tests can be downloaded for further analysis. Search filters include language, subject and text type and there is a search interface for Arabic or Greek words and phrases. The results can be filtered by text date, author, subject and text type.
Loeb Classical Library
You may know these as the Green and Red hardbacks, but the Loeb Classical Library has moved online too!
For Hellenic or Roman Societies / Institute of Classical Studies Library members, access the Loeb Classical Library via the Library catalogue page. Please login using the your name and 10 digit barcode number (no spaces between the numbers). The link to this database is via a title search - Digital Loeb Classical Library - click on "Connect to Web resource". You must access this resource through the catalogue - going directly through the Loeb website will not work.
Tips on using the Digital Loeb Classical Library can be downloaded here.
Downloadable pdf copies of all 277 Loebs in the US public domain. You can download them individually or altogether as one zip file.
Open Greek and Latin Project
The aim of the project is to collect an online version of every source text produced in Classical Greek or Latin, including texts preserved in manuscripts, inscriptions, papyri, ostraka, and other written artifacts.
Open University Greek drama database
A database to document and analyse performances, adaptations, and re-imaginings of Greek drama in the late 20th and 21st centuries. It's dynamic and constantly updated - well worth checking out!
PHI Latin Texts
Online versions of Latin texts. Most useful are the word search and concordance tools.
Tesserae is an online tool to explore intertextual parallels between Latin and Greek poetry.
Voci del mondo antico
In the text collections of Voci del mondo antico, the interactive pages will allow both easier viewing of the contents and an assessment of one's level of learning.
Epigraphy and papyrology
Attic Inscriptions Online (AIO)
Attic Inscriptions Online (AIO) is a resource structured around English translations of the inscriptions of ancient Athens and Attica. You can browse by source, date, findspot, original location, inscription type, monument type, and by publication date on AIO. AIO also have an associated Youtube Channel.
AXON Greek Historical Inscriptions
Axon Project aims to offer a selection of Greek inscriptions, from the birth of the polis in the Archaic Age to 31 BC. The documents are provided with complete lemma and critical apparatus, information about date and place of their discovery, Italian translation, commentary, and updated bibliography. This digital anthology has been selected according to a broader notion of ‘historical’ inscription, which includes those documents relevant not only for their political and institutional contents, but also for the social as well as cultural issues they display.
Carmina Latina Epigraphica Galliae
Database of verse Latin epigraphy.
Center of Digital Epigraphy
The Center of Digital Epigaphy (CoDE) hosts two projects: the Inscriptions of Israel/ Palestine (original language and translations of inscriptions from Israel/Palestine dating from the sixth century BCE to the seventh century CE) and the US Epigraphy Project (gathering and sharing information about ancient inscriptions (mainly Greek and Latin) preserved in the USA).
Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum
The printed version of the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum (CIL) consists of 17 volumes and 70 parts, 180,000 inscriptions. The digital version contains more than 50 parts (of vols. I-XVI + auctaria and of v. I (edition altera)) published before 1940.
Corpus of Ptolemaic Inscriptions
A Corpus of up-to-date editions of the Greek, bilingual and trilingual inscriptions on stone from Ptolemaic Egypt (323-30 BCE), numbering around 450 items, based on material collected and annotated by the late Peter Fraser FBA (1918-2007).
Cretan Institutional Inscriptions
Cretan Institutional Inscriptions An Open Access collection of Greek inscriptions pertaining to the Cretan institutions of the period between the rise of the poleis and the Roman conquest of the island (VII-I cent. BC), with insights into the political entities of Crete and their institutional elements.
Current Epigraphy reports news and events in Greek and Latin epigraphy, including updates on newly published open access epigraphy volumes.
Curse Tablets of Roman Britain
Digitized catalogue and archaeological context of the tablets, along with indices of the words used in them.
Dodona Online (DOL) is a project whose main aim is to edit online all the oracular questions from Dodona, including the 4216 new lamellae from the Evangelidis’ excavations.
The Epigraphic Database Rome (EDR)
This database is part of the international federation of Epigraphic Databases called Electronic Archive of Greek and Latin Epigraphy (EAGLE).
As part of the federation, it is possible to use EDR both as a single database or together with its partner databases accessing EAGLE’s portal In addition to EDR, the federation currently includes the Epigraphische Datenbank Heidelberg (EDH), the Epigraphic Database Bari (EDB) and Hispania Epigraphica (HE).
On this site you find a data base that records almost all Latin inscriptions. The texts are based on the decision of the EDCS editors. The texts are presented without abbreviations and completed where possible. The presentation of the texts is kept as simple as possible. Beside the commonly used indications for resolution, completions and erasures as few special characters as possible have been used
Epigraphic Database of Ancient Asia Minor
The EDAK (Epigraphische Datenbank zum antiken Kleinasien) project of the Department for Ancient History at the University of Hamburg aims to collect the widespread published Greek and Latin inscriptions of the regions of modern Turkey and to present them in a database with a short description and a commentary. Currently over 6000 inscriptions available.
Epigraphic Database Bari
The Epigraphic Database Bari project (EDB), started in 1988, specializes in the epigraphic documents by Christians of Rome between 3rd and 8th centuries CE. Includes open access publications.
Epigraphic Landscape of Athens
The objective of the Epigraphic Landscape of Athens, a project whose objective is to show the relationship between public inscriptions and urban space in ancient Athens.
Inscriptions of Aphrodisias Project - over 2000 inscriptions from 2nd century BCE to early 7th century CE.
Inscriptiones Christianae Graecae
A database of early Christian inscriptions from Asia Minor and Greece
Inscriptions of Greek Cyrenaica and Greek Verse Inscriptions of Cyrenaica including maps and bibliographies.
Inscriptiones antiquae Orae Septentrionalis Ponti Euxini graecae et latinae (IOSPE)
Online third edition of the corpus of ancient inscriptions from the Northern Coast of the Black Sea from the third quarter of the 7th century BCE until the fall of Constantinople in 1453 CE.
A Corpus of inscriptions from ancient Sicily, in all languages across all of antiquity - currently containing data for over 3200 inscriptions.
Inscriptions of Roman Tripolitania
Digital edition of Inscriptions of Roman Tripolitania (1952, now out of print), making the original material available again, and providing the full photographic record, together with geographical data linking the inscriptions to maps and gazetteers, and so to other resources.
Latin relics in a Greek East. (LAREGRE)
This project wants to understand both how the central government used the Latin language in the Egyptian provinces to enhance its power and authority and to study how people in Egypt reacted to the cultural and political decline of Rome in the period from IV to VII AD. During the project all the documentary papyri (about 400) which contain passages in Latin – starting from simple characters and words to phrases or full text – will be investigated within the larger frame of Late Antique Egypt, the Late and the Eastern Roman Empire.
Oxyrhynchus papyri online
This image database has been migrated to Oxford's Sustainable Digital Scholarship platform: Records for texts published in P.Oxy. vols. 83-86 are now included, along with images for records that previously lacked them. Where available, inventory numbers and links to papyri.info have been added.
Papyri and LAtin Texts: INsights and Updated Methodologies.
This project called PLATINUM aims to scrutinize Latin texts on papyrus from several points of view in order to highlight their substantial contribution to our knowledge of innovations in ancient Roman literature, language, history, and society, especially in the multilingual and multicultural contexts of the Eastern part of the Empire between the 1st century B.C. and 8th century A.D. The link leads to conference papers, book chapters and articles.
Papyri.info aggregates material from the Advanced Papyrological Information System (APIS), Duke Databank of Documentary Papyri (DDbDP), Heidelberger Gesamtverzeichnis der griechischen Papyrusurkunden Ägyptens (HGV), Bibliographie Papyrologique (BP).
PETRAE (Programme d'Enregistrement, Traitement, et Reconnaissance Automatique en Épigraphie)
Roman Inscriptions of Britain
Roman Inscriptions of Britain (RIB) Online hosts hosts multiple corpora of Roman inscriptions from Britain. Including The Vindolanda Writing Tablets and Collingwood's & Wright's monumental inscriptions.
Wisconsin Palmyrene Aramaic Inscription Project
The immediate goal of the Wisconsin Palmyrene Aramaic Inscription Project (WPAIP) is to re-collate the corpus of Palmyrene Aramaic inscriptions as far as possible, providing detailed photographic records and new editions of each epigraph.
Art and Archaeology
Akrotiri Base in Cyprus
Lecture given by Professor Simon James "Crossroads of the sea: archaeology at Greco-Roman Akrotiri, Cyprus”. This is available of the University of Leicester's YouTube channel: https://youtu.be/6LyYReckllg.
Alexandrian Centre for Amphora Studies
This site illustrates the astounding wealth of amphora material discovered throughout the construction sites and archaeological digs of this city founded by Alexander the Great. The Graeco-Roman Museum of Alexandria holds the biggest collection in the world of stamped amphora handles with more than 160,000 examples.
The Ancient Graffiti Project
A digital resource for studying the graffiti of Herculaneum and Pompeii.
Arachne - see below under German Archaeological Institute
A site linked to the German Archaeological Institute's Arachne database
Archaeological Heritage Network
A selection of pdf publications freely available to download are available here.
Many useful Public access collections - include Yale University Art Gallery: Dura-Europos Collection and Gerasa Collection. Access to the Core Collection is restricted to those who have institutional access. Check with your own institution if this is possible. Not available via membership of the Hellenic or Roman Societies.
Athenian Agora Excavation Archive
Excavations in the Athenian Agora are formally published through the Athenian Agora monograph series and articles in Hesperia, the journal of the American School. A number of digital resources are also made available free-of-charge for teaching and research purposes. For general information about the Athenian Agora excavations, including contact information and a history of the excavations, please visit http://agathe.gr.
Beazley Archive / Oxford University re-launched (2021) Classical Art Research Centre
World's largest online photographic archive of ancient Greek painted pottery. The Beazley archive incorporates the Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum, Corpus Signorum Imperii Romani; Gandhara Connections; Gems Database; Photographs and Glass Slides
British Institute at Ankara
Digital repository New resource as of 2023 based on the digitisation of the Institute’s archives – covering Turkey and the Black Sea area. Database includes information on pottery, animal bone and botanical reference collections, photographic, squeeze collections, and archaeological documents and drawings.
Monographs Titles in this series available to download as pdfs.
Council for British Archaeology
Open access material available across publications, including research reports, handbooks, papers, and education publications. and now a new temporary measure to download publications free
Corpus of Ancient Sarcophagi
A digitized version of the German Archaeological Institute's collection and publication of sarcophagi of the Roman Empire in 1870. Click 'to sarcophagus browser' in the top right-hand corner of the page to enter the database.
Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum
Digitized versions of the 250 out-of-print CVA catalogues.
The Corpus of Antique Works of Art Known by Johann Joachim Winckelmann and his Contemporaries is a data base established by the Winckelmann-Gesellschaft, Stendal, which compiles the knowledge of antique works of art in the 17th and 18th century in both visual and written documentation.
A searchable database of archaeological databases since 2000.
German Archaeological Institute
Arachne is the central object database of the German Archaeological Institute (DAI) and the Archaeological Institute of the University of Cologne and is a research tool for Archaeology and Antiquity. Arachne is free to use and creating an account is optional but recommended as images will be displayed at a higher resolution. Arachne will be displayed in your preferred language- if possible, with English as the default language. The search function contains over 2.5 million images. The categories are shown in German on the left hand side. It is possible to limit to entries with an image.
Getty Publications Virtual Library
Over 300 titles are available on the Virtual Library. Search by subject to find 112 Antiquities titles and 28 Archaeology volumes.
A link to their digitised collection, including the Roman collections with some 3D scans
Iconographic database at the Warburg Institute, University of London.
This database includes the categories of Antiquity, Architecture, Gods and Myths, Magic and Science, Gestures and Expressions. It is possible to browse over 105,000 images in 52,000 subject categories of the Warburg’s iconographic taxonomy – but this is now accompanied by selections of images on every page, making the database a more visually oriented resource. The new interface also has enhanced search capability including Boolean searches. Images are no longer displayed as pdfs, but in a zoomable viewer, enabling them to be explored more easily in greater detail. The new interface (as of March 2023) is intended to be more inviting, user-friendly, and navigable.
Iconography and archaeology of pre-Roman Italy (Icar)
Icar assembles objects from pre-Roman Italy (Etruscan, Italic and Italiote from the 8th century BC to the Hellenistic period) with figured scenes.
Instrumentum is a working group that comprises scholars interested in the crafts and industries of ancient Europe and the Mediterranean, from the European Iron Age and the eras of Greek and Roman civilization, with some overlap into the late Bronze Age and the early Middle Ages. The website contains bibliographies and publications.
Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae
The Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae (LIMC) Online is a compilation of three databases for objects in French museums. See below for the Iconicarchive based at Basel.
- LIMC-icon contains data relating to ancient Greek, Roman and Etruscan documents bearing a mythological or religious representation
- LIMC-biblio contains recent bibliographical data to complete the information published in the LIMC volumes.
- LIMC-abrev allows you to find the list of the articles published in the LIMC and the full names of the bibliographical abbreviations used in the LIMC, in the ThesCRA and on this site.
For a comprehensive search, use The Iconicarchive - produced by the University of Basel where the archives and database of LIMC were transferred in 2014. https://www.iconiclimc.ch/limc/tree.php This is a searchable database (several options available including a combined search e.g. Mythological figure and United Kingdom. There is text and images - where copyright permits. The following link has more details of the project.
Look and Learn Historical Image Archive
This archive may be useful for researchers / teachers working on Art / Archaeology / Classical Reception. It contains hundreds of thousands of free high-res historic and fine art images which have been collated from institutions such as the Rijksmuseum, Metropolitan Museum, Wellcome Collection, Musee Carnavalet, Smithsonian, New York Public Library, etc.
https://www.lookandlearn.com/history-images/free-images.php By default, the free images on https://www.lookandlearn.com appear intermixed with our proprietary images. But there is a simple option for users of the website to change the sort order so that free images always appear first in search results.
Metropolitan Museum of Art catalogues
The Met has 500 of its exhibition catalogues available to download as pdfs. Search using the grey side search box, and filter by thematic category, selecting 'Greek and Roman Art in the Ancient World'. Further refine this by selecting 'Download PDF' or 'Read on-line' in the Format field. Among the Classical items of interest are these recent publications:
"Art of the Aegean Bronze Age": The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, v. 69, no. 4 (Spring, 2012)
- Dangerous Beauty: Medusa in Classical Art: The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, v.75, no. 3 (Winter, 2018)
- "A New Analysis of Major Greek Sculptures in the Metropolitan Museum: Petrological and Stylistic": Metropolitan Museum Journal, v. 49 (2014)
Minoan / Mycenaean Seals
A corpus linked with the German Archaeological Institute's Arachne database
Netherlands Institute for the Near East
NINO (Nederlands Instituut voor het Nabije Oosten) has a number of online collections available, including digitised cuneiform tablets in the De Liagre Böhl collection and glass slides of archaeological sites from 1930-40s.
Database for Greek Coin Hoards developed by the American Numismatics Associaton. This resource contains information on 2,387 hoards of coins produced by Greeks and other non-Roman peoples in the Mediterranean and adjacent regions between ca. 650 and 30 BCE.
Ostia Forum Project
Official blog of the ongoing survey and excavation of the Ostia Forum by a team from the Humboldt University. Includes 3D visualizations and site plans.
A site linked with the German Archaeological Institute's Arachne database
Perseus Digital Library
A search on sites using the general search box at the top right of the screen will lead to textual references but on the right side see Matching artifacts and Matching images. Selecting view will lead to thumbnail images - some marked restricted. Use link to Art and Archaeology artefact browser for art objects, (coins, vases, sculptures, gems) sites, and buildings. Entries describe objects and most have images.
Prosopographia Imperii Romani
A 'Who's Who' of the Roman Empire
Corpus of Ancient Sarcophagi (a work in progress) A site linked with the German Archaeological Institute's Arachne database
Ubi erat Lupa Image database on ancient stone monuments, sculpture, reliefs, architectural from prehistory to 500 C.E.
A database on radiocarbon dated textiles and historical-dated textiles (1st millenium BC and AD
A site linked with the German Archaeological Institute's Arachne database
University of Heidelberg Archaeological Literature
The University Library at Heidelberg has digitized editions of archaeological literature from the 16th-20th centuries. Use the search tool on the linked page to search by author, title, or year of publication.
Digitised databases from museums, libraries, archives, etc.
- The American Academy at Rome - The AAR Digital Humanities Center unites the Academy's archival resources in one single search interface. Freely available are the Academy archives, the Photographic archive, and the Archaeological Study collection, among others.
- Ashmolean Museum, Oxford Searchable online
- Berlin Catalogue of sculptures in the Antikensammlung der Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin
- British Museum - As well as the Collection Online search tool, see also the virtual Museum of the World tour. You can browse exhibits by century, continent and themes — such as art and design, trade and conflict, or religion and belief.
- Capitoline Museum - Item records, documents, room descriptions, as well as Google Earth virtual tours.
- Cleveland Museum of Art - The online collections of the Museum include image records, online exhibitions, videos and 3D imaging.
- Europeana - A collation of digital collections across Europe. Explore the archaeology, art, and manuscript collections.
- Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge - Greece & Rome collection online
In November 2019, the old Collections Explorer had to be taken offline due to security issues. The beta interface for our collections is available to test and comment on. https://collection.beta.fitz.ms/
- Gallica - Compiled by the Bibliothèque nationale de France, the Gallica database contain digitised material across French libraries. Find material from Roman Gaul here.
- Hadrian's Villa Project
- The J. Paul Getty Museum - Study Getty's collection of antiquities here . You can also take a virtual tour of the Sculpture Plaza and Garden Terrace here
- Institute of Archaeology at Vienna. Established by Alexander Conze in 1869, the collection of 5,700 objects, including 4,100 originals is being made available in a database. So far (July 2021) 1200 images have been added. For more information see here
- Institute of Classical Archaeology, University of Heidelberg The Corpus der minoischen und mykenischen Siegel (CMS) Project for the systematic documentation and publication of all known Aegean seals and sealings.
- Kelsey Museum of Archaeology at the University of Michigan. Materials include selections of glass, sculpture, coins and wall paintings from Karanis, Egypt, and some objects from the Museum's galleries and collections.
- Metropolitan Museum of Art - Search the whole of the Met's collection online along with linked blog entries on particular objects or collections. Remember also that the Met's images are open-access - so you can share and use them without restriction.
- Munich Digitization Centre (MDZ) Discover over 2.5 Million digitized Manuscripts, Prints, Music, Maps, Photographs, Newspapers and Magazines. Includes some 19th century Classics Journals also some issues of Lustrum.
- Museums of Greece. Virtual exhibitions of the monuments that have been digitised from large museums in Greece as well as an exhibition of archival material from the Historic Archive of the Archaeological Service.
- Paris. Louvre Museum. From the start of April 2021, the Louvre announced that almost half a million items from its collection had been put into a new online database with more than three quarters already labelled with information and pictures. The database includes works from the main Louvre Museum, as well as those in storage as part of an ongoing project to improve online engagement and accessibility for researchers and the general public.
- The Smithsonian Institution - The Smithsonian Magazine has collated a list of the best virtual museum collections and history tours available online. Check out these tours of Ancient Athens and Rome if you need a break.
- Staatliche Museen zu Berlin Antikensammlung - the Greek and Roman antiquities collection, as well as the Egyptian collections.
- University Museums and Collections by ICOM - Universities have many important collections which are often not well-known. The UMAC search tool allows users to locate these in one place. Browse by Subject to explore the collections relating to Classical Archaeology and Classical Studies.
- Vatican Library -This website provides free access to the Library’s digitized collections: manuscripts, incunabula, archival materials and inventories as well as graphic materials, coins and medals and printed materials
- Vatican Museum / Musei Vaticani - See the full extent of the Museums' collections on a virtual tour here . Don't forget to look up at the ceilings!
- Verulamium Museum in St. Albans. This is just one example of a City Museum in the UK. Search for others by city name.
Death on the Nile publications
Series edited by Sofía Torallas Tovar (University of Chicago) and Klaas A. Worp (Leiden University), which provides freely downloadable pdf-documents with scholarly works related to Death in Graeco-Roman Egypt.
Digital Atlas of the Jewish World in Antiquity
The project constructs an interactive mapping of the archaeological findings and literary evidence about Jews around the world. Includes maps, bibliographies, and other useful links.
Digital Prosopography of the Roman Republic
The Digital Prosopography of the Roman Republic (DPRR) is a comprehensive, searchable database of all known members of the upper strata Roman society has been established, which brings together information about individual careers, office holdings, personal status, life dates and family relationships.
Histos is an online journal of ancient historiography with two new volumes now out. Histos 14 (2020) can be found here, as well as Histos Supplement 11 C. Constantakopoulou and M. Fragoulaki, edd., Shaping Memory in Ancient Greece: Poetry, Historiography, and Epigraphy (2020).
Marathon - 2500 Years: Proceedings of the Marathon Conference 2010. Edited by Christopher Carey and Michael Edwards. London: University of London Press, 2019.
This volume, which includes twenty-one papers originally presented at a colloquium hosted by the Faculty of Philology at the University of Peloponnese, Kalamata in 2010 to mark the 2,500th anniversary of the battle, is a celebration of Marathon and its reception from classical antiquity to the present era. Available as a free open-access pdf through the generosity of University of London Press.
Medicine - 2021 online exhibition organised by the Institute for the Study of the Ancient World, New York
The Empire’s Physician: Prosperity, Plague, and Healing in Ancient Rome
Digitized version of the 12th century Peutinger map
Prosopographie der mittelbyzantinischen Zeit Online
The Prosopographie der mittelbyzantinischen Zeit Online/Prosopography of the Middle Byzantine Period Online (PMBZ Online) is a comprehensive biographical dictionary for the Byzantine Empire in the early Medieval Period (641-1025 AD) documenting more than 21,000 persons.
From University of Glasgow, School of Law - This website provides information on Roman law sources and literature, the teaching of Roman law, and the persons who study Roman law. The site is available in English and German.
Project mapping 1200 years of Greek literature mentions of cities, people, and monuments, from Spain to India.
The Institute of Classical Studies is one of the hosts of the Sunoikisis Digital Classics programme, alongside the University of Leipzig. You can find the video lectures, readings, exercises, and more on the Sunoikisis Wiki page, and follow the courses at your own pace. To date, this year two modules have run at the ICS: Linking Written and Material Culture, and Digital Approaches to Cultural Heritage.
The Digital Classicist Wiki is another hub for scholars, students, professionals and other interested in the application of digital humanities or computational methods to the study or dissemination of the ancient world(s). This wiki catalogues digital projects and tools of relevance to classicists, guidelines and discussion around technical issues, and events, bibliographies and other developments in the field.
Ancient Narrative Journal
This open access journal is concerned with Greek, Roman, Jewish novelistic traditions, including novels proper, the “fringe”, as well as the fragments; narrative texts of the Byzantine age, early Christian narrative texts - and the reception of these works in modern literature, film and music.
Bryn Mawr Classical Review
Open-access, peer-reviewed reviews of current works in Classical scholarship.
Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies
Some recent BICS Supplements are available Open Access at Humanities Digital Library (https://humanities-digital-library.org/index.php/hdl/catalog/category/ics).
California Classical Studies
California Classical Studies publishes peer-reviewed long-form scholarship with online open access and print-on-demand availability.
Dotawo: A Journal of Nubian Studies
Dotawo: A Journal of Nubian Studies brings together within the same fold the disparate fields of archaeological, papyrological, and philological research; Meroitic, Old Nubian, Coptic, Greek, and Arabic sources confront current investigations in modern anthropology and ethnography, Nilo-Saharan linguistics, and critical and theoretical approaches present in post-colonial and African studies. Available as pdf downloads.
Entretiens sur l'Antiquité classique
The digitized edition of Entretiens sur l’Antiquité classique is now accessible online with a moving wall of three years (editions available free from 2017).
Indiana University Press
Access to over 50 journals published by the Indiana University Press.
Internet Archaeology is a longer-form journal platform for archaeological research. There is also an associated monograph series.
JSTOR - Text and image search
Instructions for readers on how to access JSTOR can be found here. As well as text there is an option to search images. Hold the cursor over the down arrow next to the Search icon to reveal Image search
In response to COVID-19, JSTOR has made a number of its resources available for those who do not have any institutional access. More details can be found here.
Mythological Studies/ Mythische Sphärenwechsel
De Gruyter open access downloads of the first two volumes (2019 and 2020) in this new series.
Papers on Archaeology of the Leiden Museum of Antiquities (PALMA)
Open access to PALMA, a series of monographs by the National Museum of Antiquities in Leiden (Netherlands).
OrientLab is a peer-reviewed, multi-language series devoted to researches and syntheses on the cultures of the ancient Near East.
Pdf downloads available for volumes 1-6 of this journal from the Centre of Underwater Archaeology.
The resources listed below are in addition to the ones on our website which can be found here.
Bibliographie Papyrologie en ligne
Index and search tool for bibliographic material relating to papyrology.
Links to online books on Greek and Roman classics, early Judaism, and Christianity.
TOCS-IN provides the tables of contents of a selection of Classics, Near Eastern Studies, and Religion journals, both in text format and through a Web search program. Where possible, links are given with articles of which the full text or an abstract is available online.
Tools of the Trade: Bibliographies of Roman Studies
Tools of the Trade was conceived by Lowell Edmunds as a bibliographic guide for graduate students and others interested in furthering their knowledge of the Roman world, including concordances, encyclopedias, meter, textual transmission, and more.
Bayerische Staatsbibliothek München - The Bavarian State Library in Munich's Digi20 database contains over 5,000 20th century monographs in humanities and social sciences.
Brepols - Books and journals now available through Brepols. In order to access these, members of the Library must sign in via the catalogue. Enter your name and then enter the barcode number on your membership card in the 'Password' field. You will then be redirected to the Brepols website, where you can search the available material.
Cambridge Core - Log in to the Cambridge Core website through this catalogue link to gain access to the changing selection of freely available titles. You'll need your library card barcode to do this. You have to go through the catalogue link - you won't be able to use your library details to log in directly on the Cambridge Core website. Access is available only to members of the Societies and SAS staff and students. It includes Cambridge Companions, Cambridge Histories, and Cambridge Textbooks.
Centre for Hellenic Studies, Harvard University - Selection of online publications from Greek literature to history, as well articles, essays, and lectures, including freely accessible, contemporary translations of major works from the Classical Greek world.
Coimbra University Press - selection of open-access volumes available across historiography, reception, and philosophy. Includes volumes in both the “Humanitas Supplementum” and "(Re-)writing myth" series.
Core.ac.uk - the world's largest (and searchable) collection of online research papers
Directory of Open Access Books (DOAB) The primary aim of this database is to increase discoverability of Open Access books. It is a service of the DOAB Foundation, a non-profit legal entity under Dutch law established by the Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association Foundation and OpenEdition. The Foundation is based at the National Library in The Hague.
JISC Historical Texts - 460,000 texts ranging from the 15th-19th century, including the UK Medical Heritage Library (UKMHL). Available until July 31 2020.
Les Belles Lettres - A selection of monographs available in ancient history and literature.
Manchester University Press - Temporary open access to around 200 e-books. Categories include archaeology & heritage, and history.
MOM Open Éditions - Research publications in archaeology, history and epigraphy, among others.
National University of Ireland, Galway - The staff and students in the Classics Department produce a newsletter entitled Western Classics, wide ranging content. Download individual issues
Ohio State University Press - The Knowledge Bank, a service of The Ohio State University Libraries, collects, preserves, and distributes the intellectual output of The Ohio State University. All Ohio State University Press monographs will be free to download for as long as the COVID-19 crisis lasts.
Open Access Publishing in European Networks (OAPEN) - The OAPEN Library contains freely accessible academic books, mainly in the area of humanities and social sciences.
Open Library of the Humanities - The Open Library of Humanities journal publishes internationally-leading, rigorous and peer-reviewed scholarship across the humanities disciplines. Available titles include the Theoretical Roman Archaeology Journal.
Oriental Institute, University of Chicago - Open-access publications from the Oriental Institute, including material on Egypt, the Hittites, and the late antique Near East.
Oxford University Press - Free resources for instructors and students.
Purdue University Press - Selection of open access e-books available.
Project MUSE - Humanities and social science research bank. Project MUSE is collaborating with publishers to provide free access to scholarly content throughout the pandemic - keep an eye on the updated list here. Publishers include: University Press of Colorado, Cornell University Press, University of Georgia Press, University of Maryland Press, University of North Carolina Press, Princeton University Press, University of South Carolina Press, Temple University Press, Texas Tech University Press (includes the Helios journal), Utah State University Press, Vanderbilt University Press, University of Virginia Press, Wayne State University Press.
Propylaeum Ebooks - Open access research publisher (predominantly archaeology and philosophy) with a selection of Digital Classics e-books available, as well as the monograph series.
Radboud Studies in Humanities - Open access Brill monograph series.
Sidestone Press - Currently, Sidestone Press' published titles are available at no cost to read online or (in some cases) as pdf downloads. Using the 'Browse by Subject' sidebar, you can explore the range of available material in archaeology, history, and digital humanities.
The Society of Antiquaries of London have added more information to their Online Resources List. New entries include ProjectMUSE, an online database of peer reviewed academic journals and books of digital humanities and social science content, from over 250 university presses and scholarly societies around the world. Over 70 publishers worldwide have temporarily made their content available for free.
University of Calgary Press - Selection of open access e-books across various topics.
University of London Press - The titles in the Humanities Digital Library are available as free open-access pdfs for the time being.
University of Michigan Press - Titles in the Ebook Collection (UOM EBC) free to read online (not download)
Zetemata - This series on classical studies examines topics such as philology, history, epistemology and theology in the works of writers and philosophers of ancient Greece and Rome.
PhD Theses / Help for PhD candidates
Below are some of the databases allowing downloads of completed PhD theses:
- British Library E-Theses Online Service (EThOS) (UK-based)
- DART-Europa E-theses portal
- Deutsche National Bibliothek Electronic Dissertations Plus (EDissPlus)
- Durham University theses from the Department of Classics and Ancient History
- EBSCO Open Dissertations (US-based)
- University of Illinois Classics Dissertations & Theses
- Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (NDLTD) Directory of global sources for ethesis downloads, arranged by country
- PQDT Open all the open-access theses available from ProQuest
- Tesi Online (Italian directory)
- Theses Canada (mainly from Canadian universities)
- Theses.fr (French theses from 2010-2020)
An article - about how to pass your PhD with no corrections by Hannah Laurens from the Lex Academic website
Classical Association has freely available listings of resources:
Ancient History and Classical Civilisation
General resources and websites
A new interactive online resource, Queering the Past(s) has been developed by a team of teachers and scholars to address an important gap in school education on LGBTQ+ subjects using information from antiquity to help students gain confidence in addressing modern critical (and contentious) issues.
Massolit has provided free access to its online GCSE and A-Level courses, including the Classics & Ancient History courses. You need to register for an account, but that's all.
Openstax has compiled some teaching support tools for teachers moving to online lessons. Especially interesting are the resources on keeping students engaged.
A variety of courses, including an art history course on the Ancient Mediterranean and the At-Risk Cultural Heritage Education Series (ARCHES).
Podcasts, lecture series, blogs, and other distractions
In this stressful time, working full-time on research can be difficult.
Classicists List-serve. A current awareness service based at the University of Liverpool. Provides details of forthcoming conferences, lectures and seminars, job opportunities and book launches. To join this list: Send an e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org (yes, that’s two listservs!) from the address they want to subscribe to, with the body text "subscribe Classicists" without quotation marks. Note that no subject line is needed. It is possible to fine-tune the settings - format of subject line, various daily digest options, suspension of mail delivery via the web interface Users may need to create a password the first time they use this list-serv.
ARCHES by SmartHistory - At-Risk Cultural Heritage Education Series. Taken together, these short videos and essays (see the left navigation for all the content) can serve as a stand-alone unit, however ARCHES was also designed to help instructors integrate the subject of endangered cultural heritage into their existing curriculum.
Black-centred resources for ancient Mediterranean studies - List curated by graduate students Dora Gao, Jayden Lloyd, Nadhira Hill, Sam Ross, and Zoé Elise Thomas to address the role of Classics within the perpetuation of the myth of Western Civilization and engage in Black theory and scholarship to make the discipline more diverse and inclusive.
Classics Confidential - Interviews with people who are passionate about the Ancient World. Check out the 'Archives' for over ten years' worth of audio and video material.
Classics in a Time of Quarantine - Ongoing coverage at Eidolon of the Covid-19 crisis, and what we as Classicists can do to get through it.
Comfort Classics - Interviews with Classicists about the things that make them happy - monuments, museum objects, literature etc. This is part of a more general resource - Classical Studies Support - for distance learners in Classics.
Confabulations. A Latin informal and accessible blog written by Dr Charlie Kerrigan, Trinity College Dublin, begun in 2019 and now complete in June 2020 after 24 posts.
English Heritage has a podcast series, Speaking with Shadows, with presenter Josie Long. She ‘listens to the people that history forgot’. Episode 6 is about The People of Hadrian’s Wall and features the cremation cemetery from Birdoswald.
Environmental information. (For Classical Studies - Link to SAS/Events archive) Two members of library staff took part in a School of Advanced Study online session in March 2023 with staff from The Institute of Historical Research Library about finding resources for this subject area. Our session of 30 minutes - with 25 power-point slides - is the first one and mentioned our book collection including older travel works, journal articles, conference papers, searching ancient authors in the Digital Loeb Library and finding out about events, lectures, podcasts.
Greco-Roman Legacy in Egypt (aka Classics in Arabic) - Former ICS Visiting Fellow Dr Usama Gad's blog aggregates news about publications, activities, etc, related to Arabic scholarship in the field of Greco-Roman studies, seeking to challenge the Eurocentrism prevalent in the field.
Internet Classics Archive - Translations of classical texts, search tools, lists of e-resources, and a collation of places to purchase Classics research material.
Latinometer This web application evaluates English prose and assigns a Latinate percentage to the score. Each word is defined as deriving from Greek, Latin, French, Germanic, with function words excluded. The words are also linked to Thesaurus.com - so to reduce the Latinity of one's prose a search can provide a Germanic equivalent. The link to the example using Jane Austen's novels shows the use of this resource. The link to the creators leads to a selection of papers by Mary DeForest on classical tradition in modern literature including one on Austen as a closet classicist.
Legit Classics podcast produced by Hat Trick Productions. These have been created by
Jasmine Elmer whose aim is to widen access to classics for all, demystify the subject and to encourage new audiences. Each episode tackles a different topic with the aid of a celebrity guest, to explain how the Greco-Roman era has influenced many aspects of modern life.
Ludus and Locus Ludi - A project of the University of Fribourg project, these are databases of ancient boardgames with a variety of historical resources to accompany them.
Museum Crush. A dozen museum models can be seen on sketchfab from Museum Crush. The 3D, VR and AR platform Sketchfab is is celebrating eight years of creations so Museum Crush has selected 12 favourite free models made by public British museums and heritage organisation. And if you want to see more Roman 3D models take a look at 10 finds scanned a couple of years ago from Corbridge.
#MuseumsUnlocked - a Twitter initiative run by Professor Dan Hicks of the Pitt Rivers Museum, which started on 1st April 2020. Each day has a different theme such as Ancient Music, Celts, Greek Monuments and Museums, The Romans, Wall art etc. Contributions of pictures and information are compiled with a number of sections for each theme. It you are on twitter you can then contribute but if not you can still browse the archives. Here's a link to the list which runs from the current entry (21st June) back to the first entry. https://twitter.com/profdanhicks/moments
Open Library - A subsection of the Internet Archive, the Open Library's goal is to provide a page on the web for every book ever published. In addition, where possible, they will provide a link to something as close to the actual document you're looking for as they can, whether that is a scanned version courtesy of the Internet Archive, or a link to a place to buy it. They also have scanned library copies which you can digitally 'borrow'.
Plato’s Republic (and Apology and some ancient history)
Good in Theory is a postcast which makes the classics of political philosophy engaging without “dumbing them down”. The current series is a 14-part adaptation of Plato’s Republic, performed by actors with interpretation by host Clif Mark. Earlier series’ include five episodes on Plato’s Apology and a trilogy on the polis, Sparta and Athens. Clif Mark is a former academic political theorist-turned-writer. For more info, episodes, and information visit goodintheorypod.com
Potted Histories are running a series of online courses, beginning with Roman Pottery which will cover Samian, Barbotine, Black Burnished; Grey Wares, Wheels, Moulds, Kilns, Tools and more. Sign up to join their mailing list.
SAGE Business Cases: Ancient Leadership - A series of case studies exploring narratives around becoming a leader in the ancient world.
The Society of Antiquaries of Scotland (SoAS) has hundreds of free-to-view recordings of lectures to browse and view on their website “All of which should help to pass the time and increase your knowledge of Scotland’s past!” says their Press Officer Andrea Kaszewski. You can also view them through their YouTube channel, twitter account and Facebook page. (They also have free-to-read articles and books on their publishing platforms)
Staging the Archive: the Archive of Performances of Greek and Roman drama podcast is based around an archive item which is used to kick start a wider conversation, and providing a complement to the blog of the same name. Episodes are released regularly.
UCL Institute of Archaeology Journal of Conservation and Museum Studies - The Museum Ethics collection and Voices In (and Around) The Museum collection may make for valuable crossover with classical research.
Video games in the pipeline for 2022 - Information from Working Classicists Group.
Working Together to Transcribe Ancient Documents During COVID-19. Sarah E. Bond, Society for Classical Studies.